6 months ago

The Salmon Guide: Smoked Salmon 101 (Jan. 2019)

Salmon is absolutly bloody delicious! Its popularity is skyrocketing at the moment and im not surprised.

But what is the history of this marvelous food? Where did it come from? Who invented it? What are the different ways we can eat it?

In this article, with help from some of the best in the business we will uncover the answers to these questions and more!

There is no doubt it’s a winner at breakfast time, and with the booming popularity of smashed avo at your local café for breakfast, paired with smoked salmon, this has been great for business! So that makes me pretty happy.

Adam Harris - Harris Smokehouse

The Origins of Smoked Salmon

It's hard to say exactly when the first people started smoking salmon. However, what we do know is that it has been around since at least the times of the Greeks and the Romans. The Greeks and Romans would enjoy smoked salmon on platters at their lavish festivals.

The smoking process was first used as a means of preserving fish. Salmon was caught fresh, salted and then smoked at a high temperature. This would keep the salmon in freshly caught condition for a longer time.

Here in the United States, the smoked salmon industry was born on the West Coast around the beginning of the 19th century. This was developed during World War II when a method of preservation was created to allow the fish to last longer while being transported long distances.

To the Native Americans, salmon was something that they held in high regard. It was believed that if it was mishandled the great oceans spirits would drive all the salmon away from their area.

European settlers had a salmon heavy diet. Many European servants had a very salmon heavy diet and it was seen as peasant food. Some got so sick of getting fed salmon they would go so far to write into their contracts that they would only allow salmon to be served to them once a week! (crazy I know!)

These days salmon is enjoyed worldwide and is often a feature on platters, canopies, starters and main meals.

Different Ways To Smoke Salmon

There are two ways to smoke salmon. Hot smoking and cold smoking. Although they sound like similar processes they are massively different. So, what is the difference between smoking and hot smoking?

Is there a certain age of salmon that is better for cold smoking?

'' All the salmon we get I believe is 3-4 years old. Takes that long to grow that size. 

I don’t think the age really effects the taste etc as it would in other proteins. ''

BJ Plummer - Woodbridge Smokehouse

What is Cold Smoking Salmon?

As the name suggests cold smoking salmon is the process of smoking salmon in a cold environment. Cold smoking is the method of cooking salmon when the temperature is less than 90°F.

This is a method of cooking doesn’t actually ‘cook’ the salmon per say, it is actually flavored with smoke and during flavoring process, the salmon is subsequently cooked.

Cold smoking leaves the ‘raw’ texture of the salmon, essentially, this is because the salmon still is raw. This type of smoked salmon is typically the salmon you find at your supermarket in the flat packs.

Before the cold smoking takes place, the salmon is dry cured in a salt, this draws out most of the moisture in the salmon. Making it the perfect texture once cold smoked.

What is Hot Smoked Salmon?

There are several key differences between cold and hot smoked salmon. As the name suggests hot smoked salmon is smoked at hot temperatures. This is considered anything over 120°F.

The other major difference between the two methods is hot smoked salmon is brined in salted water, not dry cured. This process allows the salmon natural flavor to be more pronounced and you can even use this process to infuse other flavors into your salmon.

Salmon that has been hot smoked is often better to be reheated or warmed because the fish has already been exposed to heat before.

This type of salmon is typically the larger portions/ fillets you find wrapped in plastic in your supermarket. (right next to the cold smoked salmon).

What Is Lox? Lox Vs Smoked Salmon

Traditionally speaking, lox is made using the belly of the salmon which is salt brined or cured. Lox is far richer than other styles of smoked salmon and has a very silky texture and is almost translucent in color. Nowadays Lox is made from all parts of the salmon, however, the true smokers will always stay true to history and use only the belly.

The belly of the salmon has much more fat than the rest of the salmon, and in my eyes is much more delicious.

The difference between lox and smoked salmon is that Lox is salt brined or cured but never actually smoked or cooked. So put simply is Lox raw? Yes, it is. There are two other variations of lox, although these two methods of making Lox are cooked after the curing process, they are still considered lox.

Gravlax: Is the Scandinavian version of lox. It is made using fresh dill, pepper, juniper berries and brandy (or liquor).

Nova Lox: This is the Nova Scotia version of lox. It is cold smoked after being salt brined or cured.

Is Lox Raw? Lox is brined or salt cured, so it's not actually physically cooked.

Lox Ice Cream: You read that right. You can get lox ice cream. Essentially it is vanilla ice cream mixed with a piece of nova lox and cream cheese, finished off with salt.

Lox and Cream Cheese: Lox and bagels are a classic combo. But what makes them more classic? Cream cheese.. This is also knowOne of the best ways to enjoy lox is to make a lox cream cheese bagel. Smother your freshly toasted bagel with cream cheese and give yourself a healthy few layers of lox. Season lightly with salt and pepper and you have one of the best breakfast/ brunch snacks ever.

What is lox spread? Lox spread is essentially a lox and cream cheese mixed together to form a spreadable version of lox. 

What Is Your Favourite Type Of Salmon to Smoke? 

 '' Farmed Scottish Salmon.   Wild fish don’t have a high enough fat content for hot-smoking. '' 

Lance Forman - H. Forman & Son

What Different Types of Salmon Are There?

There are many different types of salmon out there. But what are they and what makes them different from one another?

Chinook Salmon / King Salmon / Oncorhynchus Tschawytscha

Better known as the king salmon, Chinook salmon is considered to be the best tasting salmon (hence the name king). This is because King salmon is a very rich tasting fish and have a high-fat content, the King salmon’s belly is often used for high-end sashimi. The king salmon has a beautiful marbled colour or white and deep red. This is a mixture of the fat and flesh.

Pink Salmon / Humpies / Humpback Salmon / Oncorhynchus Gorbusha

Referred to as the Humpback salmon because of their trademark hump, Pink salmon are the most common salmon found in the Pacific. Unlike the King salmon, Pink salmon have a very low-fat content and have a much lighter flesh complexion. You will generally find pink salmon in cans at your local supermarket, however, they are also sold as frozen fillets smoked or fresh from your fishmonger.

Red Salmon / Sockeye Salmon / Kokanee Salmon / Oncorhynchus Nerka

Red salmon, or more well known as the Sockeye or Kokanee salmon are found in the North Pacific Ocean and the river leading into it. They have a very rich salmon flavor and are often frozen sold fresh or canned. The Sockeye salmon have two different colors for when they are in different climates. When they are in the ocean they are silver with a beautiful blue tinge, then when they return to their spawning grounds in the rivers they take on a different color entirely. Their heads turn green and their bodies turn red, hence the name Red salmon.

Atlantic Salmon / Salmo Salar

Unfortunately, the Atlantic ocean is not home to many different species of salmon, only one. Simply and appropriately called the Atlantic Salmon or in technical terms Salmo Salar. Due to human introduction, you can also find Atlantic salmon in the Pacific Ocean. Atlantic salmon is the largest of the salmon varieties and all salmon caught commercially is farmed. Over the past years farmed fish has had some bad publicity, however, every year more and more effort is put into making fish farming more sustainable.

Silverbrite Salmon / Chum Salmon / Keta Salmon / Dog Salmon / Oncorhynchus keta

Silverbite salmon or dog salmon is it is more commonly known as gets its name from its dog liked teeth. It is one of the smallest types of salmon and has the lowest fat content of all salmon. This type of salmon is usually only frozen and sold abroad or canned. 

What Is The Best Part Of The Salmon To Smoke?

'' The Belly is best for hot smoking, the loin for cold smoking, but few people would bother to split the fillet like this commercially. The higher oil content of the belly section keeps the end hot smoked product more moist, and takes on more smoke flavour into those oils so it become richer. Where as the loin is more subtle in texture and oil content so produces a more delicate end result from cold smoking. ''

Adam Harris - Harris Smokehouse

Salmon Pronunciation: How To Pronounce Salmon Salmon Vs Sammon 

If your family is anything like mine, you would have had the great salmon vs sammon debate around the dinner table while chowing down on a delicious salmon meal. ‘Is the 'l' in 'salmon' supposed to be pronounced?’

Originally the ‘l’ in Salmon was pronounced, however, over time the way that we pronounce letters and words has evolved and changed. Nowadays it is quite uncommon for someone to pronounce the l is salmon.

So officially the answer to ‘how do you pronounce salmon’ is... yes! We are supposed to pronounce salmon with the ‘l’.

Is Smoked Salmon Raw & Can You Get Salmonella From Salmon?

One question that comes up every time I am eating salmon is ‘Is smoked salmon cooked or raw?’

That question has to be broken down into two more questions and those two questions have two different answers.

Is cold smoked salmon raw?

Cold smoked salmon is considered to be not cooked, or raw. This is because the temperature that is used in the smoking process is to low to actually ‘cook’ the fish. So in this instance, you are eating smoked salmon raw.

'' No, id call it cured.  To most people its still raw as its never had any temp to preserve it. Most people would call curing the salting process, but really the product cures all the way through the cold smoking process also. If you compare to pork, the texture of Ham would be hot smoked, while Proscuitto is cured, which is very similar to cold smoking.''

Adam Harris - Harris Smokehouse

Is hot smoked salmon raw?

When hot smoking, the temperatures are actually hot enough to ‘cook’ the salmon. This means that hot smoked salmon is considered to be cooked.

In that case, what happens if you eat raw salmon? Can you get sick from eating raw salmon? Can you eat raw salmon from the supermarket?

It is safe to eat raw salmon, however, you must be careful. Raw salmon is home to some nasty parasites. If eating raw salmon you must make sure that the salmon was flash frozen as soon as it was caught to ensure that the parasites don’t have time to grow. Once bought you must eat the raw salmon as quickly as possible.

I would be very careful buying salmon from the supermarket for eating raw. ALways check with your fishmonger and ask if they have ‘sushi grade’ salmon or if their salmon will be safe for eating raw.

Can You Get Tapeworm From Eating Raw Salmon?

It is possible to get tapeworm from eating raw salmon, however, the chances of that are rather low. If you do get tapeworm from eating raw salmon you may find you have discomfort in your gut, ‘loose’ stool and could even start to lose weight.

Can You Get Salmonella From Salmon?

In short, no you can not get salmonella from eating raw salmon directly. There is n physical link between raw salmon and salmonella.

The only possible way would be if whoever is preparing your salmon came into contact with a food source that did carry salmonella and then handled the salmon directly without washing their hands.

How To Tell If Your Salmon Is Fully Cooked

The FDA recommends that to fully cook your salmon the temperature in the middle of the thickest part must be 145°F. The best way to check this is with a ** digital thermometer**
Don’t worry if you don't have one though, it is quite easy to tell when salmon is fully cooked.

Gently pole into the center of the salmon with a knife to expose the middle section. You are looking for the outside to be opaque and the inside to be translucent and the salmon to give slightly when you poke it. At this stage your salmon is only just slightly undercooked, however, once you rest it on the bench for a further 5 minutes it will finish cooking and be perfect.
Salmon Bones and Salmon Scales.

Can You Eat Undercooked Salmon?

The same principle applies for eating undercooked salmon. It is safe to do so however if you do like to eat your salmon ‘rare’ make sure you are doing so with the freshest and best quality salmon available. 

Do Salmon Have Bones? What About Eating Salmon Bones? Can You Eat Salmon Scales? Do You Wash Salmon Before Cooking?

Salmon do have bones but don’t worry, they are very easy to remove prior to cooking. The best way to remove the bones from your salmon fillet is to get a pair of needle nose pliers and just yank them out form towards the center of the fillet. The bones are quite strong so using your fingers can be quite difficult and hurt.

When preparing salmon it is not necessary to scrape off the scales. Salmon scales are safe to eat and can are even full of healthy fatty acids and other minerals. Just make sure you don’t eat them on a first date, sometimes they can get stuck in your teeth.

Washing salmon before cooking. It is not essential to wash your salmon before cooking it. However, with that being said for older fillets of salmon you might be best to. As salmon ages the bacteria and enzymes slowly start to break it down, that is what causes the ‘fishy’ smell of fish. If you are unfortunate enough to buy a piece of salmon that has the fishy smell it is advised to quickly rinse it in cold running water. This can take away the bad smell. Just be sure to dab dry with a paper towel before cooking. 

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You will more often than not find me tinkering around in my backyard. I will have one hand tightly gripped around a can of beer and the other hand tightly gripped around my spatula. Not so long ago (almost 8 years now) I got obsessed with Grilling, smoking and BBQ-ing. I can't get enough of it.. and neither can my family!

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